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Biology Courses & Research

Start here to find the research you need!

What is a Primary Source?

Primary source is original research experiment and publish the results or findings in scholarly journals. High-quality articles go through a peer-review process before being published. When your professor asks you to use primary sources it means he or she expects students to search for and analyze original scientific research.

Journal of Neuroscience cover
cover of Science Journal
cover of the American Journal of Science and Technology
cover of the Journal of the American Chemical Society

What is a Secondary Source?

A secondary source means the author(s) are writing about others’ research. Thus the research is secondary because it is a second-hand translation of original research. Secondary sources include encyclopedias, dictionaries, textbooks and review articles where the author analyzes and critiques others’ original research articles. Secondary sources can be high-quality scholarly publications that provide background information on a topic. They are an excellent starting point when learning about a new topic.

Examples of Print & Electronic Secondary Sources Available in the Vogel Library Collection

Generating Key Words

It will be important to brainstorm possible keywords in order to "research" effectively

  1. What words describe the main concepts you want to investigate? 
  2. What background needs to be filled in to understand the context for viewpoints?
  3. Are there synonyms for the search words you have selected?   
  4. How much can you find out about the author or organization presenting the info?

Freshwater Food Webs
microcosms and food webs
limiting nutrients


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