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Education Research

Instruction Session - 5/1/23

Literature Reviews

A literature review is a summation of previously published books, articles, book chapters, and other works on a specific topic. For researchers (authors), students, and others, the purpose of a literature review is to provide a broad image of the existing knowledge of the topic at hand. 

3 types of Literature Reviews

  • Evaluative
  • Exploratory
  • Instrumental

A fourth type, systematic reviews, focuses on a specific research topic/question: "trying to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high-quality research evidence and arguments relevant to that question" (Bolderston, 2008, p. 87). A sub-type of a systematic review is a meta-analysis that uses a statistical approach to sufficiently connect the data from all specified studies to produce a more trustworthy result (Bolderston, 2008). 

Bolderston, A. (2008). Writing an effective literature review. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, 39(2), 86-92.

Education Databases

Is a Journal Scholarly?

American Psychological Association (APA)

American Psychological Association Resources 

Citing ChatGPT Formula:

Author. (Date). Model Title (version) [Additional Descriptors]. URL

For ChatGPT, the descriptor is Large language model.


Citing ChatGPT Example:

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].


In-text ChatGPT citation example:

  • Parenthetical citation: (OpenAI, 2023)
  • Narrative citation: OpenAI (2023)

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)

Purdue's Online Writing Lab commonly referred to as Purdue OWL is an online resource that supplements Purdue's writing lab. Over time it has become a go-to resource for faculty and students alike. If getting to Vogel to check out the APA Publication Manual can't happen, Purdue OWL is a wonderful online resource to use for your citation needs.




Citation Management Made Easier!

Vogel Library provides access to RefWorks, a powerful citation management tool. Using a citation management tool will assist you in organizing and storing research articles and creating bibliographies. All faculty, students, and staff can set up a free RefWorks account:

  1. Go to the RefWorks login page (linked below)
  2. Click "Create Account"
  3. Sign up using your Wartburg email account

Questions? Contact the library!

Vogel Library, Wartburg College   |   100 Wartburg Blvd, Waverly, IA, 50677 |   Phone: 319-352-8500   | Email: