The intent of a news article is theoretically to inform you of a newsworthy item.
However, no source is neutral and thus, every news source must be examined for agenda--the desire of the publication to persuade the reader towards a certain mindset, however mildly or seemingly harmless.
Word choice will be the primary indicator of agenda; inclusion/omission of facts and fact placement are also important (see box).
Some agenda is obvious.
Excerpted from https://thefederalist.com/2019/04/26/democrat-objections-citizenship-question-ploy-help-illegal-aliens-vote/
Word Choice Giveaways:
Some agenda is not.
See more analysis at https://bikeportland.org/2013/10/07/language-matters-despising-avid-cyclist-and-a-news-story-anatomy-95128 for an interesting take on how a bias can be built subtly--and sometimes even invisibly to the author themselves.
It would be nice if a chart could do the work of ascertaining agenda for us, but charts like these create false equivalencies of extremities on "both sides," incorrectly equate publication agenda with straight political agenda, and manufacture the illusion that a source can be neutral (it cannot).
Most of the time when we hear about the results of a new medical or scientific study, we learn about it from news sources reporting the results.
However, news sources will also often reword the results to make the results more sensational and often misleading (writing the percentage of risk rather than non-risk, for example, or not fully discussing the context).
Make it a habit to find the title of the original study and then track it down to its original source.
Bacon Causes Cancer: https://www.forbes.com/sites/jvchamary/2015/10/27/bacon-cancer/;
No Proof: https://metro.co.uk/2019/10/01/no-proof-steak-sausages-bacon-cause-cancer-experts-say-10836881/
A Non-Original Source Has These Characteristics:
A Non-Original Source is Likely One of the Following:
The original sources may be found in several ways:
The more news you read, the more you will notice the words AP or Reuters (or even AFP) at the beginning of the article.
These are the two major news wires/news agencies in the world. They have built the infrastructure to have access to news around the world, which they do not themselves publish--instead, they charge outlets to use this news to be able to write about stories they never could otherwise.
Think about what that means if most news outlets--big and small--are taking their news from the same two or three places.
Knowing how a news article is constructed can inform you as you note:
These are both aspects of bias and perspective you learn to examine in IS 201.
Slide credit: Haviland, M. Basic news writing. U.S. Air Force. https://www.slideshare.net/MarkHaviland/news-final1
Watch this Last Week Tonight segment on Sinclair Broadcast Group--just one example of how media conglomerates can affect how millions of people receive news.
Print media can have similar issues. Note all Rupert Murdoch-owned publications.