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Citation Guide

This guide provides a few examples of how to cite various sources in different citation styles. An explanation of citations is included on the first tab.

American Psychological Association 6th Edition

DOI Explanation

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) was created to be an easier, more permanent way to track down a source in a citation list. However, its newness, lack of universal inclusion, and way of being buried on a journal's web page can make including this a source of frustration.


The APA Manual does not require that you include a DOI--it only recommends that you include when when it is available. Make the best effort possible to track down the DOI. See pages 187-9 in the APA citation manual.

Vogel Library Online Guide to APA Style

Here are a few of the main aspects that characterize APA style:

  • List the author’s last name and first and second initials only.
    • Why? Because the focus of social sciences is on the date, not the author.
  • Lists the date immediately after the author’s name.
    • Why? Because what matters to social science research (the main discipline that uses APA) is the currency of the material.
  • DOIs are included when available (see box to the right for more info).
  • Web citations do not have separate rules: you must find the approximate type of publication your web source is and use the print guidelines to make the citation. Urls are included in all web citations.