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Citation Guide

This guide provides a few examples of how to cite various sources in different citation styles. An explanation of citations is included on the first tab.

Personal Communication Sources in Works Cited, MLA Style


Placeholder example

All examples are quite different, so analyze each to understand the specific aspects.


Nolan, Amy. “Graphic Novels.” Wartburg College. Neumann Auditorium, Wartburg College, Waverly, IA. 20 Sept. 2011. Address.


*The placeholders here are the lecturer’s name, the title of the presentation, the meeting/sponsoring organization, the location (full address if possible) and an appropriate label—you’ll see the convocation is called an address but below it is called a Class lecture. Nothing is italicized.


Montgomery, Zak. “Sociocultural Effects of Colonialism on Native Brazilians.” Inquiry Studies 201: Race, Class, and Gender in Brazil. Wartburg College. Waverly, IA. 12 Jan. 2012. Class lecture.


*Same placeholder description as for convocation.

Interview that someone else conducted

Lee, Li-Young. Interview by Shawn Wong. Lannan Literary Videos. Lannan Foundation, 1995. VHS.


*For a published interview that someone else did, you will cite it according to the rules for the type of publication (cite an interview in a TV show as a TV show, cite an interview in a newspaper as a newspaper, cite an interview on radio as a radio file, etc). Above this is cited as a film.

*If the interview itself does not have a title, include the word Interview in the citation.

*If the interview is an audio or video file, obviously there are no page numbers, so for the in-text citations, no page numbers are necessary.

*There are many variations; see the style guide for more information.

Interview that you conducted

Herring, Caroline. Personal interview. 9 Feb. 2012.


Shamau, Simon. “Re: Thank you.” Message to Ed Westen. 5 Apr. 2008. Email.


*This is an email citation. See the style guide for information on citing letters, both published and unpublished (page 204).

*If the email is to you, you write this: Message to the author.