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Citation Guide

This guide provides a few examples of how to cite various sources in different citation styles. An explanation of citations is included on the first tab.

In-Text Citations, MLA Style

IN-TEXT CITATIONS, MLA

 

General Instructions: You have 3 choices of how to include author name and page number:

 

  1. Include both the name and the page number in parentheses after the sentence and before the period:
    • Aishwarya Rai, through her product endorsements, implicitly supports color classing while explicitly (but vaguely) speaking against it (Osiri 114).

 

  1. Include the name in the sentence and include the page numbers in parentheses at the end before the period:
    • Osiri shows that Aishwarya Rai, through her product endorsements, implicitly supports color classing while explicitly (but vaguely) speaking against it (114).

 

  1. Include both the name and the page number in the sentence and nothing at the end.
    • Osiri (114) shows that Aishwarya Rai, through her product endorsements, implicitly supports color classing while explicitly (but vaguely) speaking against it.

 

*The above examples use paraphrasing instead of directly quoting as their examples. If you are using a direct quote, note that the final closing quotation marks come before the parenthetical reference, like this:

  • The American Heritage Dictionary chooses to include new words based largely on the language of “evolving social developments” and “general provenance” (Pickett xxix).

Quoting the same source consecutively

State the author name for the first citation, and after that you only need to include the page number—until the first time another source is cited. Then it is back to both author and page number.

Multiple Authors

For 2-3 authors, list their last names separated by commas.

  • (Gorman, Segriff, and Greeberg 152).

 

If there are more than 3 authors, it is your choice to list all the last names or simply write the author name who was listed first and then et al (follow whatever you do in your Works Cited list).

  • (Bloom et al).

More than 1 work by the same author

Include a shortened version of the title to differentiate between the multiple works by the same author:

  • The origins of the term “Bollywood” are contested, and the use of the term is still disdained by some purists (Dwyer, 100 5). On the other hand, Bollywood is the term the rest of the world has adapted and uses to describe things from their visual aesthetic to sexual mores (Dwyer, All 20).

 

*In these cases, the title of the first work cited is 100 Bollywood Films and the title of the second is All You Want is Money, All You Need is Love. Note they are shortened and italicized.

*See the example Works Cited list attached to the main MLA tab for how to do this in the bibliography.

Work quoted in one of your sources

Always attempt to find the original source of the quotation so you do not have to rely on indirect quotations. If you must do this, do it like this:

  • The journalist Indu Mehrani has been known to say, “For us, there’s God, then film stars, then cricketers” (qtd. in Booth, 2008).

 

*The reference list only includes the work you have—in this example, you would cite the Booth source in the reference list and only refer to Merhrani in text. Again, though, do all you can to find the original source of the Mehrani quote.