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Citation Guide

This guide provides a few examples of how to cite various sources in different citation styles. An explanation of citations is included on the first tab.

Image Sources in Reference List, APA Style


Placeholder example for images—see below for specifics

The APA Manual does not specifically address citing works of art that you reference. It only addresses images that you include as reproductions in your paper. See pages 151 and 165-166 in the style manual.

Image in ARTstor

Kioto-Shashin-Kwan. (Artist). (c. 1800). Three geisha musicians. [Image of albumen print with hand-coloring]. Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco. Retrieved from


*The closest type of citation to an image in Artstor is a combination of unpublished/archival material and a map retrieved online/podcast.

*The c. 1800 here stands for “circa 1800” as the exact date is unknown.

*Note the type of art is listed after the title and date.

Image in a book

Renoir, A. (1874). La loge. In L. Gowing (Ed.) Facts on File encyclopedia of art. (vol. 5 p. 800). New York: Facts on File.


*The closest type of citation to an image in a book is citing a chapter/essay/article from a book.

Image online

Stachowski, M. (Photographer). (2009, April 6). Read before you buy. [JPEG of photograph]. Stock.xchnge [online image database]. HAAP Media Ltd/Getty Images. Retrieved from


*The closest type of citation to an image online is a map retrieved online or a podcast.

Image you observed in person (such as in a museum)

Arbus, D. (1967). Two girls in matching bathing suits, Coney Island, New York. [Gelatin silver print]. Floyd and Josephine Segal Collection, Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, WI.


*The closest type of citation to an image in a museum is an archival document or collection.