Skip to main content
Wartburg College homepage  

Citation Guide

This guide provides a few examples of how to cite various sources in different citation styles. An explanation of citations is included on the first tab.

Video/Audio Sources in Reference List, APA Style


Placeholder example

These are all quite different, so analyze each to understand their elements.

Film (DVD, theater, any format)

Kong, H. L., Kong, B. & Lee, A. (Producers). Lee, A. (Director). (2000). Crouching tiger, hidden dragon [Motion picture]. China: Asia Union Film & Entertainment.


*The placement of information should be apparent since you add the actual descriptor after it in the citation.

Video online

FOX News. (Producer). (2010, August 12). Hispanics fire back at Harry Reid [Video file]. Retrieved from http://video.foxnews.



*This is a video on a news website. The producer is always listed. Add more contributors with their descriptors in parentheses if you want to point out their contributions (see film example).


Crocker, C. (Producer). (2007, September 10). Leave Britney alone [Video file]. Retrieved from



*This is a video on YouTube.


TED Conferences. (Producer). Horner, J. (Speaker). (2011, November). Shape-shifting dinosaurs [video]. Available from


*This is a TED talk. It says “Available from” instead of “Retrieved from” because I only listed the main website address, not the specific url.

TV episode

Morgan, D. (Writer) & Manners, K. (Director). (1995). Humbug. In C. Carter (Executive producer), The X-Files. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.


*Note this is similar to citing a film.

Audio Recording

Gainsbourg, S. (1975). Nazi rock. On Rock around the bunker [CD].United Kingdom: Mercury Records.


*This is a citation for a song that the singer also wrote.


Parton, D. (1974). I will always love you. [Recorded by W. Houston]. On The bodyguard: Original soundtrack album [CD]. United States: Arista. (1992)


*This is a citation for a song recorded by someone who was not the writer. This also shows how you cite a cover (not just a song written by someone else for that album).

Audio Recording online

Roosevelt, F. D. (1933, March 12). Fireside chat on banking [MP3]. In The American Presidency Project (n.d.). Retrieved from


*Here we combined the format for podcasts and things within things (like chapters within books).

*n.d. means no date available.