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Citation Guide

This guide provides a few examples of how to cite various sources in different citation styles. An explanation of citations is included on the first tab.

Web Sources in Reference List, APA Style


Placeholder example for web sources

APA does not have separate rules for web sources. Instead, they want you to cite web sources according to the kind of thing they are—cite online news sites as newspapers, cite online books as books, etc—and then add “Retrieved from” or “Available from” and include the url at the end.


Friends of the National Museum of the American Latino. (2011). American Latino museum. Retrieved from


Van Kerckhove, C. (2008, March 4). Latino artists bear burden of anti-immigrant frenzy. In Racialicious. Retrieved from


Talamentes, M., Lindeman, R. & Mouton, C. (2001). Health and healthcare of Hispanic/Latino American elders. In G. Yeo (Ed.), Curriculum in Ethnogeriatrics (2nd ed.). Retrieved from


*These citations are formatted somewhat like books or chapters in books, with the phrase “Retrieved from” and the url always listed at the end.

Web documents

Golub, E. & Erdmann, J. (2006). Fishing in the Twin Cities metropolitan area: Focus groups with Hispanic/Latino residents [PDF]. In HACER: Credible Latino Research. Retrieved from publications.html

National Diabetes Education Program. (2009). The diabetes epidemic among Hispanics/Latinos. Retrieved from


*These are PDFs online. We combined the formats for chapters in a book and something like a podcast.


Gopal, S. & Moorti, S. (Eds.). (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi song and dance [Ebrary file]. Retrieved from


*Use the phrase “Retrieved from” and paste the url. Do not end with a period.

*Only the first word is capitalized; after that, no capitalization except for proper nouns.

*If it is an electronic-only version of a book, it will look the same except you do not have to put what type of file it is in brackets.

Article from a reference database

Gilbert, C. (1998). Visual arts: 1920-45, art outside the revolutionary tradition. In M. S. Werner (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Mexico: History, society & culture (2007 ed.). [Credo Reference version] Retrieved from


*Credo Reference will give you the incorrect citation format for this; you will need to know how to fix it yourself.

Newspaper online

Crouse, K. (2012, February 24). Braun says drug testing was “fatally flawed”. The New York Times. Available from


*“Available from” is used instead of “Retrieved from” when you link to the main website instead of the exact url.

Image online

Stachowski, M. (Photographer). (2009, April 6). Read before you buy. [JPEG of photograph]. Stock.xchnge [online image database]. HAAP Media Ltd/Getty Images. Retrieved from


*The closest type of citation to an image online is a map retrieved online or a podcast.

Video online

FOX News. (Producer). (2010, August 12). Hispanics fire back at Harry Reid [Video file]. Retrieved from http://video.foxnews.



*This is a video on a news website. The producer is always listed. Add more contributors with their descriptors in parentheses if you want to point out their contributions (see film example).


Crocker, C. (Producer). (2007, September 10). Leave Britney alone [Video file]. Retrieved from



*This is a video on YouTube.


TED Conferences. (Producer). Horner, J. (Speaker). (2011, November). Shape-shifting dinosaurs [video]. Available from


*This is a TED talk. It says “Available from” instead of “Retrieved from” because I only listed the main website address, not the specific url.

Audio Recording online

Roosevelt, F. D. (1933, March 12). Fireside chat on banking [MP3]. In The American Presidency Project (n.d.). Retrieved from


*Here we combined the format for podcasts and things within things (like chapters within books).

*n.d. means no date available.