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Citation Guide

This guide provides a few examples of how to cite various sources in different citation styles. An explanation of citations is included on the first tab.

Article Sources in Reference List, APA Style



The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) was created to be an easier, more permanent way to track down a source in a citation list. However, its newness, lack of universal inclusion, and way of being buried on a journal's web page can make including this a source of frustration.

The APA Manual does not require that you include a DOI--it only recommends that you include when it is available. Make the best effort possible to track down the DOI. See pages 187-9 in the APA citation manual and the document attached below.

Placeholder example for articles—see below for specifics

Last Name, First Initial(s), Last Name of Next Author, First Initial(s), & Last Name of Next Author, First Initial(s). (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx


*Names are listed with last name comma first initial (first and second initials if available). Ampersand (&) is used to connect to the final author when there are multiple authors.

*Year always comes next in parentheses.

*Title has first word capitalized; no other words are capitalized except for proper nouns and the first word after a colon.

*Title of periodical comes next, capitalize all words.

*Pay attention to the comma and period placements.

*xx means the volume number. You will write x:x if there is a volume and issue number without continuous pagination (see examples below). Only the volume number is italicized.

*pp-pp means page number to page number (see examples below).

Journal article with a DOI

Cole, B. (2005). Spiritually-focused psychotherapy for people diagnosed with cancer: A pilot outcome study. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 8, 217-226. doi: 10.1080/13694670500138916


*Note the article title only has the first word capitalized. The only other words capitalized will be proper nouns and the first word after a colon.

*The number 8 is the volume number of the journal. Remember that the volume number increases with each new year. The issue number is not included because the journal uses continuous pagination—the page numbers do not start over at 1 with each new issue but instead each issue picks up numbering the pages where the previous issue left off.

Journal article without a DOI

Cuthrell, K., Stapleton, J., & Ledford, C. (2010). Examining the culture of poverty: Promising practices. Preventing School Failure, 54(2), 104.


*No “Retrieved from” information is included here as the journal was retrieved from a subscription-only database. If the journal is available in full-text online, you would include a “Retrieved from” phrase and the url of the website from which the article was retrieved.

*The number 54 is the volume number. The number 2 is the issue number. The issues are how many times a year the journal is published—so, if published every month, the issues will go from 1-12, if published 4 times a year, issues will be 1-4, etc. The issue number is included here because this journal does not use continuous pagination—it starts over numbering its pages with each new issue.

Journal article in print OR magazine article in print or online.

Worrell, D. (1985, May 27). Now: Madonna on Madonna: ''If people don't get the humor in me or my act, then they don't want to''. Time, 78.


*No DOI is used when the article is not catalogued somewhere online.

*This is a magazine; it is the same for a journal only in print.

* Always cite the information related to the numbering system used by the magazine/journal. Time uses the month and date system because it comes out weekly. If the magazine came out monthly, you would only need to cite the month. If the publication uses volume and issue numbers, cite those instead. 

Newspaper in print

Shradel, D. (2012, February 6). Track and Field wins 11 events at Home Select. Trumpet, pp. 7.


*If paper has no sections, list page numbers.


Gruenewald, A. (2012, February 16). Wartburg prof launches Peace and Justice major. Waverly Democrat, pp. A1, A4.


*If paper uses sections, list section numbers.

Newspaper online

Crouse, K. (2012, February 24). Braun says drug testing was “fatally flawed”. The New York Times. Available from


*“Available from” is used instead of “Retrieved from” when you link to the main website instead of the exact url.

Video about How to Find & Cite a DOI

This 3.05 minute video is from University of Maryland, Maryland College.

It's not exciting, but it's very accurate if you find this topic confusing.