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Citation Guide

This guide provides a few examples of how to cite various sources in different citation styles. An explanation of citations is included on the first tab.

In-Text Citations, APA Style

IN-TEXT CITATIONS, APA

 

General Instructions: You have 2 choices of including author name and date:

 

  1. Include both the name and date in parentheses after the sentence and before the period (this is a paraphrase; obviously it is the same for a quote). The date is normally just the year, but check other types of publications for variations:
    • Aishwarya Rai, through her product endorsements, implicitly supports color classing while explicitly (but vaguely) speaking against it (Osiri, 2008).

 

  1. Include both the name and the date in the sentence and nothing at the end.
    • Osiri (2008) shows that Aishwarya Rai, through her product endorsements, implicitly supports color classing while explicitly (but vaguely) speaking against it.

 

*The above examples use paraphrasing instead of directly quoting as their examples. If you are using a direct quote, note that the final closing quotation marks come before the parenthetical reference, like this:

  • The American Heritage Dictionary chooses to include new words based largely on the language of “evolving social developments” and “general provenance” (Pickett, 2006).

Quoting the same source consecutively

APA has very strict rules on this format, and it is best to look up each individual case in the manual. Start on page 174 and find your specific scenario.

Multiple Authors

For two authors, always cite both authors every time you reference the source. Write “and” between their names if in a sentence and “&” between their names if in the parentheses:

  • As stated by Gopal and Moorti (2008), the diaspora has helped the popularity explode.
  • The diaspora has helped the popularity explode (Gopal & Moorti, 2008).

 

For 3-5 authors, list all the authors only the first time you reference the source. All other times, write the first author’s name and then “et al.”

  • Many teachers prep their courses believing poverty is not a diversity issue that should affect their plans (Cuthrell, Stapleton, & Ledford, 2010). But “poverty is garnering more attention as a factor in determining identity” (Cuthrell et al., 2010).

 

For 6 or more authors, you will only ever write the first author’s name and then “et al.”

More than 1 work by the same author in the same year

Note this is only if the author has works in the same year—otherwise, the standard inclusion of the year in the citation is enough to differentiate. For two or more sources in the same year, include a lowercase lettering system corresponding to the order the sources are cited in the reference list.

  • Lyrics should not be overlooked as an important contribution to Bollywood lore (Dwyer, 2000b). In the same way, the back and forth influence of culture on the movies and movies on culture is of prime consideration (Dwyer, 2000a).

 

*In these cases, the title of the first work cited is The Poetics of Devotion and the title of the second is All You Want is Money, All You Need is Love. Therefore, in the reference list, the second source would come first alphabetically, so it is given the small letter “a”.

*See the example References list attached to the main APA tab for how to do this in the bibliography.

Work quoted in one of your sources

Always attempt to find the original source of the quotation so you do not have to rely on secondary quotations. If you must do this, do it like this:

  • The journalist I. Mehrani has been known to say, “For us, there’s God, then film stars, then cricketers” (as cited in Booth, 2008).

 

*The reference list only includes the work you have—in this example, you would cite the Booth source in the reference list and only refer to Mehrani in text. Again, though, do all you can to find the original source of the Mehrani quote.

Personal interviews, emails, and letters

You will not cite an interview you conducted in the reference list. You will only reference it in-text, with this information in parentheses after the reference:

  • (S. Shamau, personal communication, April 5, 2008).
  • Placeholder example: (First Initials Last Name, type of communication, Month Day, Year).